Basic phrases

Here are some basic English phrases which you can use in everyday conversation, as well as some common words you will see on signs.

yes
no
maybe or perhaps
please
thanks
thank you
thanks very much
thank you very much

The following are some polite ways you can reply to someone who thanks you:

you're welcome
don't mention it
not at all

Saying hello and goodbye

Here are some different ways to greet people:

hi (quite informal)
hello
good morning (used before noon)
good afternoon (used between noon and 6pm)
good evening (used after 6pm)

The following expressions, on the other hand, are some different things you can say when saying goodbye:

bye
goodbye
goodnight
see you!
see you soon!
see you later!
have a nice day!
have a good weekend!

Getting someone's attention and apologising

excuse me (can be used to get someone's attention, to get past someone, or to apologise)
sorry

If someone apologises to you, you can reply using one of the following expressions:

no problem
it's OK or that's OK
don't worry about it